The Scrum Framework is a product development and project management framework, which helps to create guidelines and a process to the Agile Manifesto of Software Development. At the core of Scrum is the premise, that product and project delivery is complex and therefore requires more short-term adaptation as opposed to long-term planning.
Scrum is based on empiricism - the approach that knowledge comes from primarily sensory experiences. It means, we gather more and better knowledge, if we try something and then learn from the results of the trial.
Scrum is based on the following 5 valuers, which help teams to make decisions and move forward to foster more distributed decision-making:
Traditionally Project Management appoints one leader, which ensures, that the work is delivering the right value and also, that this value works as expected. This position is called Project Manager. In Scrum, responsibility over different parts in a project is split into three roles:
The Product Owner ensures, that the team is always delivering value for the stakeholder, customer or user. This role ensures, WHAT the team is delivering is the right value.
The team (aka development team in the original Scrum Guide) itself is responsible over the quality of the work. It ensures, that HOW the team is delivering work is the best way they could do it. For that, Scrum assumes that the team has to be cross-functional, self-organized and competent, so the team would make the right decision.
Finally, the Scrum Master ensures a healthy balance between the Product Owner (What) and the team (How). This role protects the Product Owner and the team from each other as well as from outside influencers. With focus on lived Scrum values, the Scrum Master is responsible to ensure, that the What and the How becomes FASTER every time.
In the centre of Scrum is the Sprint, which is a continuously timeboxed iteration. It is not longer than 4 weeks with a preference to as short as possible. A sprint gives the team focus and commitment to be able to deliver the work as needed for the customer. A sprint starts right after the previous sprint ended.
The Sprint starts with a Sprint Planning, in which the team decides with the Product Owner, what they want to achieve in the upcoming sprint and how they want to go about it. It is a collaborative event / meeting between all 3 roles, where the balance between delivery as wells quality is important.
During the sprint, while the team is working on delivering the value, the team comes together every day for maximum 15 minutes in a Daily Scrum. In there, the team learns from each other, what happened during the last day and how that would affect their next day.
At the end of the sprint comes the Sprint Review, where the team invites Stakeholders, Users, Managers, etc. to look at the delivered result of the sprint and fathers new feedback on how to improve that delivery. A part of the Review might be the demo, where the stakeholders can use or look at the delivered result.
As the last event in a sprint, the Sprint Retrospective invites all three roles to discuss the collaboration of a team. Usually, they gather data on activities, which did not go as well as planned. based on these insights, they develop actions on how to improve for the next sprint.
The requirements of what to achieve is organized in a list of planned activities, which are prioritized from top to bottom according to business value. In negotiations with customers, this Product Backlog is the main responsible person for the product owner and ensures that is always prioritized and transparent to the team.
After the Sprint Planning the team decided on their sprint goal for the upcoming sprint as well as on a Sprint Backlog - the detailed activities on how the team is planning to achieve that goal. This backlog is updated and made transparent by the team alone.
The result of the work within the sprint is called the Potentially Shippable Product Increment. It is only potentially shippable as it does not need to be shipped to the customer right away. However, it is supposed to add value to the product or service and is supposed to be used right away by customers (it works).
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